The treatment of physical and psychiatric conditions by encouraging patients to undertake specific selected activities that will help them to reach their maximum level of function and independence in all aspects of daily life. These activities are designed to make the best use of the patient’s capabilities and are based on individual requirements.
They range from woodwork, metalwork, and printing to pottery and other artistic activities, household management, social skills, and leisure activities. Occupational therapy also includes assessment for mechanical aids and adaptations in the home. In the case of a brain-injured patient the activities might be designed, for example, to help the patient know what to do when they wake up, to help them organise their day, to attend appointments on time, to take medication on time, to cross the road safely, to modify unacceptable behaviour etc.
A medically qualified physician who specialises in the study, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.
The study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management, and prevention.
A scientific assessor of brain function (not medically trained or qualified). A psychologist may work in a university, in industry, in schools, or in a hospital. A clinical psychologist has been trained in aspects of the assessment and treatment of the ill and handicapped. He or she usually works in a hospital, often as one of a multidisciplinary team. An educational psychologist has been trained in aspects of the cognitive and emotional development of children. He or she usually works in close association with schools and advises on the management of children.
The science concerned with the behaviour of man and animals. Different schools of psychology have used different methods and theories: experimental, ethological, introspective, behavioural, gestaltism, psychoanalysis.
The branch of treatment that employs physical methods to promote healing, including the use of light, infrared and ultraviolet rays, heat, electric current, massage, manipulation, and remedial exercise. Rehabilitation:
- The treatment of an ill, injured, or disabled patient by massage, electrotherapy and graduated exercises to restore normal health and functions or to prevent the disability from getting worse.
- Any means for restoring the independence of a patient after diseases or injury, including employment retraining.
- Comprehensive TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury) rehabilitation consists of at least the following elements:
- expert medical and nursing care in directing and providing the rehabilitation process
- preventing secondary deterioration
- maximising natural recovery processes (avoiding aggressive surgical intervention to correct spastic joint deformities)
- Facilitating gradual functional gain. Many tasks necessary for mobility, self-care, communication, etc are initially too overwhelming when presented as a whole and can a TBI survivor to “give-up”.
- Providing an optimal environment for neurological recovery.
- Providing and teaching compensatory techniques for areas where recovery is insufficient, including cognitive strategies.
- Providing appropriate equipment
- Adapting the environment, eg housing and vehicle adaptations
Speech (Communication) Therapy:
The treatment of communication